Happy April 23 National Sovereignty and Children’s Day… April 23 is the first official holiday of Turkey, where both the abolition of the sultanate, the opening of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and the Children’s Day are celebrated together…
April 23rd is a holiday that Turkey gifted to the world… However, April 23rd is not a single holiday, it is a day where 3 holidays are celebrated on the same day. 23 April 1920 Opening of the Grand National Assembly, 1 November 1922 The abolition of the Sultanate and 23 April Children’s Week…
Opening of the Grand National Assembly
19 May 1919 Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who set foot in Samsun in , wanted a parliament to be established in Anatolia. With the Amasya Circular and the decisions taken at the Erzurum and Sivas congresses, the idea that “the nation’s sovereignty will again ensure the nation’s determination and determination” was settled.
After the elections held in the autumn of 1919, the Ottoman Parliamentary Assembly convened on January 12, 1920, with the participation of 162 out of 168 members. Mustafa Kemal was elected deputy of Erzurum, but he remained in Ankara. This Assembly, in which the pro-Anatolian and Rumelian Defense of Rights Association deputies were in the majority, accepted Misakımilli in its secret session on January 28, 1920. After the occupation of Istanbul on March 16 and the arrest of the supporters of the National Struggle, lawmakers and intellectuals began to go to Ankara. The Assembly of Deputies convened for the last time on March 18 and decided that the Assembly would be suspended indefinitely.
Mustafa Kemal, with the circular published on March 19, 1920, announced that an “Extraordinarily authorized Assembly” would be convened in Ankara.
On April 23, 1920, after the Friday prayers were performed in the Hacıbayram Mosque and the victims were sacrificed, the first Turkish Grand National Assembly was opened in the building that was built as the Union and Progress Club. The opening of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey 102 years ago on April 23, which will enable great steps to be taken on the road to the Republic, was one of the most important phases of the Turkish Republic’s liberation struggle.
The abolition of the Sultanate
The representative of the “Turkish Grand National Assembly, the rule of law and the sovereign,” numbered 308, adopted by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 1 November 1922. The sultanate was officially abolished with the decree “that it is genuine”. With this decision, the Ottoman Empire officially came to an end.
When the sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922. It was accepted as “November 1 National Domination Day”. Although November 1 was the “Day of National Sovereignty”, after this date, April 23, the opening date of the Parliament, was celebrated as the National Domination Day, and in time, the date of 1 November was forgotten.
As a matter of fact, “23 April National Day” was changed to “23 April National Domination Day” when the law on holidays and holidays was changed in 1935.
Children’s week and April 23 children’s day
As a result of the inadequacy of the correctional institutions and Darüleytams established in the Ottoman Empire in the 1900s, the “Guardianship” was first established in Kırklareli in 1908. -i Etfal” was established. When the Istanbul Himaye-i Etfal Society was established in 1917, it merged with the society established in Kırklareli. In the following years, it continued to open in different provinces.
Himaye-i Etfal Society explains its founding purpose as “The Society primarily deals with the children of martyrs, the disabled and the children of war victims” and “The Society also deals with the matters pertaining to the protection of the alelumum etfal”. While the association states that it will primarily deal with the orphans of martyrs, it accepts a broad understanding of service that will protect all the children of the country.
While the Himaye-i Etfal Society accepted April 23 as a children’s day, it started to celebrate April 20-30 as Children’s Day Week since 1929.
Ruşen Eşref Ünaydın, one of the writers of the period, CHP and one of the founders of Galatasaray, wrote about 23 April: “We are protecting the children of those who sacrificed their lives for the sake of protecting the homeland by considering this day when the Grand National Assembly, which is our beginning, was opened. i Etfal Society has taken a very important and meaningful move.”
With the 1982 Constitution, 23 April is celebrated as “National Sovereignty and Children’s Day”.